BMI has been widely used at national and international levels to indicate malnutrition, either thinness or obesity, among all populations, including adolescents. In Terengganu, 6. In addition, the national study also indicated that the prevalence of thinness and obesity was higher among urban areas compared to rural areas. Following that, the latest NHMS data , which were recently released, reported that the national prevalence of thinness has decreased to 7.
Terengganu, however, showed an increase in both the prevalence of thinness and obesity, to 7. Corresponding to the earlier report [ 7 ], prevalence of obesity and thinness were also found to be higher in urban areas compared to rural areas. Whether this data represents the actual body weight status of total school adolescents aged 10 to 17 in suburban states like Terengganu is uncertain.
The impacts of biological factors such as gender and age, with the influence of demographic factors like school locations and districts, on body weight status among this population are still debatable. The present baseline study, as part of the Health of Adolescents in Terengganu study HATs , aimed to provide the most recent state-level total population data with comprehensive descriptive analyses of body weight status among school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia.
This data was anticipated to serve the Ministry of Education as well as the Ministry of Health for further policy or guideline development in relation to the health of school adolescents. The present cross-sectional baseline study was conducted from November to June throughout Terengganu, Malaysia. Terengganu is located on the East Coast of the Malaysian peninsular.
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Data were collected from a total of 67, adolescents. Of these, 62, had complete data and were included in this study. These age groups refer to the standard public school staging system applied in Malaysia, which is also related to the examination system. In addition, participants were also classified into groups based on school location and the district that they live in.
The SEGAK programme is a standard physical fitness test to assess physical fitness level in primary and secondary school adolescents. There are five main components involved, including measurement of BMI, step up, push-ups, partial curl-ups and a sit and reach test. The data of this study is strictly confidential and belongs to the Malaysian Ministry of Education. However, a complete report is due to be produced. Using a standardised protocol, height and weight were measured by the trained PE teachers in each school based on the reference material provided [ 10 ], and uploaded into the specific developed database in the HEMS web portal.
Body mass and stature were measured using calibrated analogue health scales to the nearest 0. The age of each participant was calculated to the precise day by subtracting the date of birth from the date of measurement, while the BMI were calculated by dividing body weight in kilograms kg by height in metres squared m 2. At the time of data collection, all participants were apparently healthy and all measurements were taken in light sports attire, without shoes, during mornings or early afternoons.
BMI categories were defined using age- and sex-specific cut-off points relative to WHO classifications [ 12 ]. Descriptive statistics were presented as means, with their standard deviation or percentage of prevalence. This was used to describe the characteristics of the participants in terms of mean weight, height, age and BMI.
Independent sample t -test was used to test the difference in mean of BMI between genders and school locations rural vs. A two-sided p value of less than 0. A total of 62, school adolescents were involved in the study In total, Kuala Terengganu, as the capital city of Terengganu, has the highest proportion of school adolescents among all seven districts On average, the mean BMIs of total participants were The other age groups 13 to 15 and 16 to 17 showed no difference between urban and rural locations in both boys and girls.
While girls had higher prevalence of overweight, boys showed higher prevalence of thinness and obesity. Between school locations, the urban schools had a significantly higher prevalence of both overweight and obesity, with a lower prevalence of thinness compared to the rural schools. Significant differences were also found between BMI categories and genders in all age groups of urban and rural school locations. No difference was observed between rural and urban locations in other age groups. According to districts, the prevalence of overweight was highest in Dungun Nevertheless, the prevalence of obesity was found to be highest in Kuala Terengganu In contrast, Kemaman had the highest prevalence of thinness The findings of this study were analysed and compared with those of other international and national studies, as well as those of other states in Malaysia.
The results present the descriptive statistics on mean BMI and prevalence of thinness and obesity among adolescents in different school locations and districts in Terengganu. To our knowledge, this is the only study with an attempt to provide data on body weight status of whole population of school adolescents in all states of Malaysia. In total, the means of BMI increased as age increased, however, this was consistently plotted in normal range. Mean of BMI significantly differed between genders in secondary school-age adolescents.
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This can be explained by several factors, including physiological changes and difference in lifestyle between genders at this age [ 13 ]. Girls at this age may have significantly higher BMI compared to boys as a result of rapid growth and physical changes associated with sexual maturation and puberty.
Girls generally experience the growth spurt associated with puberty two years earlier compared to boys [ 14 ]. In addition, girls tend to engage in less physical activity, such as sports, compared to boys in their secondary schools [ 15 — 17 ]. The significant differences between genders were primarily contributed by several districts, including Dungun, Hulu Terengganu, Kuala Terengganu, Marang and Setiu. The association between districts and the difference in mean BMI between genders may be explained by differences in level of urbanisation between districts and lifestyle between genders in each district [ 18 ].
This may potentially be due to less difference in lifestyle, mainly with regards to total energy intake [ 20 ]. Rapid advance in environmental, social and physical developmental changes after the urbanisation process has led to the increase in sedentary lifestyle among adolescents [ 22 , 23 ]. Due to higher socioeconomic status, these urbanised adolescents are more engaged with gadgets and technology, which has reduced their time spent involved in physical activity.
In addition, the transition towards Westernised diets, mainly in processed and fast foods, which are high in calorie, sugar and fat content, has a significant role in the increased BMI among adolescents in the urban areas [ 24 ]. Nevertheless, significant differences in mean BMI were also observed between several districts.
Boys from the district of Kuala Terengganu had significantly higher mean BMI compared to other districts. Kuala Terengganu acts as the capital city of Terengganu and is primarily made up of urban and developed areas, which may have contributed to the increased problem of unhealthy lifestyles. The prevalence of obesity in Terengganu has increased by two-fold in In comparison with other state like Kelantan, the prevalence of overweight and obesity was considerably higher, by Other Asian developing countries, such as China and India, also reported an increasing trend of childhood obesity, from 6.
In spite of the increased prevalence of overweight and obesity among these adolescents, the prevalence of thinness in Terengganu has also increased from 6. It was lower compared to the national prevalence in The findings from this study indicated a contradictory trend compared to the national study in the prevalence of thinness in association with age. The latest NHMS study showed an increasing trend of thinness with increasing age [ 8 ].
Conversely, in agreement with the same study, the trend of obesity prevalence reduced as age increased. While there was a significant difference between BMI categories and genders in all age groups, the prevalence of adolescents with normal BMI increased with age. Parallel with the SEANUTS study [ 19 ], girls had lower prevalence of thinness and obesity but higher prevalence of overweight compared to boys.
Contrary to the present findings, the NHMS study [ 7 ] has reported that the prevalence of obesity increased whilst thinness decreased as age increased in both genders. The reason for this difference was speculated to be due to the difference in sampling method.
The NHMS study implied household method whereby this study targeted adolescents in schools. A similar trend was found among underweight boys and girls in Kuala Lumpur [ 27 ]. Parallel with the NHMS data for Terengganu, the prevalence of both thinness and obesity were lower among girls compared to boys in all age groups [ 8 ]. This is also consistent with the findings from two previous national studies [ 28 , 29 ]. In contrast, no difference was found between genders in the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents in Turkey [ 30 ]. Conventionally, most of the nutritional studies in Malaysia and other countries showed a higher prevalence of obesity in the urban areas.
However, thinness was more prevalent in the rural areas. Away colours Away colours are a choice of coloured clothing used in team sports. They are required to be worn by one team during a game between teams that would otherwise wear the same colours as each other, or similar colours; this change prevents confusion for officials and spectators. In most sports, it is the visiting or road team that must change — second-choice kits are known as away kits or change kits in British English , road uniforms in American English ; some sports leagues mandate that away teams must always wear an alternative kit, while others state that the two teams' colours should not match.
In some sports, conventionally the home team has changed its kit. In most cases, a team wears its away kit only when its primary kit would clash with the colours of the home team. However, sometimes teams wear away colours by choice even in a home game. At some clubs, the away kit has become more popular than the home version. Replica home and away kits are available for fans to buy; some teams have produced third-choice kits, or old-fashioned throwback uniforms. In North American sports, road teams wear a change uniform regardless of a potential colour clash. All road uniforms are white in gridiron football and the National Hockey League , while in baseball, visitors wear grey.
Most teams choose to wear their colour jerseys at home, with the road team changing to white in most cases. White road uniforms gained prominence with the rise of television in the s. A "white vs. The NFL's current rules require that a team's home jerseys must be "either white or official team color" throughout the season, "and visiting clubs must wear the opposite".
If a team insists on wearing its home uniforms on the road, the NFL Commissioner must judge on whether their uniforms are "of sufficient contrast" with those of their opponents. The road team might instead wear a third jersey, such as the Seattle Seahawks' "Wolf Grey" alternate.
According to the Gridiron Uniform Database, the Cleveland Browns wore white for every home game of the season; the only times they wore brown was for games at Philadelphia and the New York Giants , when the Eagles and Giants chose to wear white. Louis Cardinals wore white for several of their home games, as well as the Dallas Cowboys ; until Dallas had worn blue at home, but it was not an official rule that teams should wear their coloured jerseys at home.
The use of white jerseys was introduced by general manager Tex Schramm , who wanted fans to see a variety of opponents' jersey colours at home games. The Cowboys still wear white at home today. Teams in cities with hot climates choose white jerseys at home during the first half of the season, because light colours absorb and retain less heat in sunlight — as such, the Dolphins, who stay white year-round, will use their coloured jerseys for home night games; every current NFL team except the Seattle Seahawks has worn white at home at some time in its history.
Since the Redskins have chosen to wear white jerseys and burgundy jerseys equally in their home games, but they still wear white against the Cowboys; when Gibbs returned from to , they wore white at home exclusively. In , they wore a white throwback jersey; the Dallas Cowboys' blue jersey has been popularly viewed to be " jinxed " because of defeats at Super Bowl V in , in the divisional playoffs at Cleveland, Don Meredith's final game as a Cowboys player.
Super Bowl rules changed to allow the designated home team to pick their choice of jersey. White was chosen by the Cowboys, the Redskins, the Pittsburgh Steelers , the Denver Broncos , the New England Patriots ; the latter three teams wear colours at home, but Pittsburgh had worn white in three road playoff wins, while Denver cited its previous Super Bowl success in white jerseys, while being 0—4 when wearing orange in Super Bowls.
Teams playing against Dallas at home wear their white jerseys to try to invoke the "curse", as when the Philadelphia Eagles hosted the Cowboys in the NFC Championship Game. Teams including the St. Louis Cardinals and New York Giants followed suit in the s, the Carolina Panthers did so from until , including two playoff games; the Hous. Association football Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by million players in over countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end.
The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association.
Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins. If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition.
Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football , which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name.
According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty , cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games.
Athenaeus , writing in AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence. They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified " mob football ", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history.
Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe ; the modern rules of association football are based on the midth century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules , first drawn up at Cambridge University in , were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football.
They were not universally adopted. During the s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club , formed by former public school pupils in , which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in In , John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in , which first met on the morning of 26 October at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street , London.
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- Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study.
- Body weight status of school adolescents in Terengganu, Malaysia: a population baseline study;
The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse ; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath , withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand. Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in formed the Rugby Football Union.
The eleven remaining clubs, under. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Home colours.
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