Some layout objects are still more specialized. Phrasing slurs, crescendo hairpins, ottava marks, and many other grobs are not localized in a single place — they have a starting point, an ending point, and maybe other properties concerned with their shape. Many objects, even though they are quite different, share common features which need to be processed in the same way.
To simplify these internal operations these common actions and properties are grouped together in an object called a grob-interface. There are many other groupings of common properties like this, each one given a name ending in interface. In total there are over such interfaces.
We shall see later why this is of interest and use to the user.
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We met some object naming conventions previously, in Contexts and engravers. Here for reference is a list of the most common object and property types together with the conventions for naming them and a couple of examples of some real names. Other characters are used verbatim. As we shall see shortly, the properties of different types of object are modified by different commands, so it is useful to be able to recognize the types of objects and properties from their names. We must now introduce some more important commands.
Because this command has to modify internal properties deep within LilyPond its syntax is not as simple as the commands you have used so far. It needs to know precisely which property of which object in which context has to be modified, and what its new value is to be. This will set the property with the name layout-property of the layout object with the name LayoutObject , which is a member of the Context context, to the value value. The Context may be omitted and usually is when the required context is unambiguously implied and is one of lowest level contexts, i.
We shall see later when it must be specified. Later sections deal comprehensively with properties and their values, see Types of properties. But in this section we shall use just a few simple properties and values which are easily understood in order to illustrate the format and use of these commands. For more information about Scheme mode, see LilyPond Scheme syntax. Here is a simple example to change the color of the note head:.
It will be omitted in many of the following examples. Here we revert the color of the note head to the default value for the final two notes:. Using the same example, we can change the color of a single note like this:. We mention it here for completeness, but for details see Difficult tweaks. This should be used when several objects occur at the same musical moment, but you only want to change the properties of selected ones, such as a single note within a chord.
Suppose we wish to change the size of the middle note head the E in a C major chord. We see the override affects all the note heads in the chord. It acts on the immediately following item in the input stream. In its simplest form, it is effective only on objects which are created directly from the following item, essentially note heads and articulations.
So to return to our example, the size of the middle note of a chord would be changed in this way:. The context should not be specified; in fact, it would generate an error to do so. Both context and layout object are implied by the following item in the input stream. Note also that an equals sign should not be present. Objects such as stems and accidentals are created later, and not directly from the following event. Notation Reference: The tweak command.
How do you go about doing this? But is there a heaviness property for a slur, and if there is, how might it be modified? This is where the Internals Reference manual comes in. Before we look at the Internals Reference a word of warning. This is a reference document, which means there is little or no explanation contained within it: its purpose is to present information precisely and concisely. This means it might look daunting at first sight. The guidance and explanation presented here will enable you to extract the information from the Internals Reference for yourself with just a little practice.
Suppose now that we decide we would like the slurs to be a little heavier. Is this possible? Go to the documentation page and click on the Internals Reference link. For the next few paragraphs to make sense you will need to actually do this as you read. Under the heading Top you will see five links. Select the link to the Backend , which is where information about layout objects is to be found. There, under the heading Backend , select the link to All layout objects. The page that appears lists all the layout objects used in your version of LilyPond, in alphabetic order. Select the link to Slur, and the properties of Slurs are listed.
An alternative way of finding this page is from the Notation Reference. On one of the pages that deals with slurs you may find a link to the Internals Reference. This link will take you directly to this page, but if you have an idea about the name of the layout object to be tweaked, it is easier to go straight to the IR and search there. Then it lists the standard settings. Browse through them looking for a property that might control the heaviness of slurs, and you should find.
This looks a good bet to change the heaviness. It tells us that the value of thickness is a simple number , that the default value is 1. As we said earlier, there are few to no explanations in the IR, but we already have enough information to try changing the slur thickness. We see that the name of the layout object is Slur , that the name of the property to change is thickness and that the new value should be a number somewhat larger than 1.
We get:. There are a few more complications that we shall meet in later sections, but you now know all the essentials required to make up your own — but you will still need some practice. This is provided in the examples which follow. But first, what if we had needed to specify the Context? What should it be? We could guess that slurs are in the Voice context, as they are clearly closely associated with individual lines of music, but can we be sure? And because Voice is one of the lowest level contexts which is implied unambiguously by the fact that we are entering notes, we can omit it in this location.
As you can see, all the slurs are thicker in the final example above. But what if we wanted just the first slur to be thicker? If the immediately following note does not begin a slur the command has no effect at all — it is not remembered until a slur is encountered, it is simply discarded. Finally, what if we wanted just the first two slurs to be heavier? You may use whichever method best suits what you want to do.
That concludes our introduction to the IR, and the basic method of tweaking. Several examples follow in the later sections of this Chapter, partly to introduce you to some of the additional features of the IR, and partly to give you more practice in extracting information from it. These examples will contain progressively fewer words of guidance and explanation.
Suppose now that we wish to print the lyrics in italics. We find LyricText , which looks right. Clicking on this shows the settable properties for lyric text. These include the font-series and font-size , but nothing that might give an italic shape. This is because the shape property is one that is common to all font objects, so, rather than including it in every layout object, it is grouped together with other similar common properties and placed in an Interface , the font-interface.
So now we need to learn how to find the properties of interfaces, and to discover what objects use these interface properties. Look again at the IR page which describes LyricText. At the bottom of the page is a list of clickable interfaces which LyricText supports. The list has several items, including font-interface. Clicking on this brings up the properties associated with this interface, which are also properties of all the objects which support it, including LyricText.
Now we see all the user-settable properties which control fonts, including font-shape symbol , where symbol can be set to upright , italics or caps. You will notice that font-series and font-size are also listed there. This immediately raises the question: Why are the common font properties font-series and font-size listed under LyricText as well as under the interface font-interface but font-shape is not? The answer is that font-series and font-size are changed from their global default values when a LyricText object is created, but font-shape is not.
The entries in LyricText then tell you the values for those two properties which apply to LyricText. Other objects which support font-interface will set these properties differently when they are created.
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The object is LyricText , the property is font-shape and the value is italic. As an aside, although it is an important one, note that some properties take values that are symbols, like italic , and must be preceded by an apostrophe, '. Symbols are then read internally by LilyPond. Note the distinction from arbitrary text strings, which would appear as "a text string" ; for more details about symbols and strings, see Scheme tutorial. Nota bene : In lyrics always leave whitespace between the final syllable and the terminating brace.
Extending: Scheme tutorial. So far we have seen two types of property: number and symbol. To be valid, the value given to a property must be of the correct type and obey the rules for that type. The type of property is always shown in brackets after the property name in the IR. Here is a list of the types you may need, together with the rules for that type, and some examples. We only give examples for constants here: if you want to compute a value using Scheme, see Calculations in Scheme. Let us now put what we have learned into practice with a few examples which show how tweaks may be used to change the appearance of the printed music.
In the educational use of music we might wish to print a score with certain elements omitted as an exercise for the student, who is required to supply them. As a simple example, let us suppose the exercise is to supply the missing bar lines in a piece of music. But the bar lines are normally inserted automatically. How do we prevent them printing?
Before we tackle this, let us remember that object properties are grouped in what are called interfaces — see Properties found in interfaces. This is simply to group together those properties that may be used together to tweak a graphical object — if one of them is allowed for an object, so are the others. Some objects then use the properties in some interfaces, others use them from other interfaces.
The interfaces which contain the properties used by a particular grob are listed in the IR at the bottom of the page describing that grob, and those properties may be viewed by looking at those interfaces. We explained how to find information about grobs in Properties of layout objects. Using the same approach, we go to the IR to find the layout object which prints bar lines. Going via Backend and All layout objects we find there is a layout object called BarLine. Its properties include two that control its visibility: break-visibility and stencil. Barline also supports a number of interfaces, including the grob-interface , where we find the transparent and the color properties.
All of these can affect the visibility of bar lines and, of course, by extension, many other layout objects too. This property controls the appearance of the bar lines by specifying the symbol glyph which should be printed. In common with many other properties, it can be set to print nothing by setting its value to f. The bar lines are still printed. What is wrong? Go back to the IR and look again at the page giving the properties of BarLine. At the bottom it gives a list of Contexts in which the bar engraver operates. If the context is specified incorrectly, the command simply does not work.
No error message is produced, and nothing is logged in the log file. Now the bar lines have vanished. Note, though, that setting the stencil property to f will cause errors when the dimensions of the object are required for correct processing. For example, errors will be generated if the stencil property of the NoteHead object is set to f.
If this is the case, you can instead use the point-stencil function, which sets the stencil to an object with zero size:. We see from the BarLine properties in the IR that the break-visibility property requires a vector of three booleans. These control respectively whether bar lines are printed at the end of a line, in the middle of lines, and at the beginning of lines.
For our example we want all bar lines to be suppressed, so the value we need is f f f also available under the name all-invisible. Note also that in writing this value we have before the opening parenthesis. We see from the properties specified in the grob-interface page in the IR that the transparent property is a boolean. This should be set to t to make the grob transparent. In this next example let us make the time signature invisible rather than the bar lines. To do this we need to find the grob name for the time signature. So the command to make the time signature transparent is:.
In either case, the time signature is gone, but this command leaves a gap where the time signature should be. Maybe this is what is wanted for an exercise for the student to fill it in, but in other circumstances a gap might be undesirable. To remove it, the stencil for the time signature should be set to f instead:. Finally let us try making the bar lines invisible by coloring them white. There is a difficulty with this in that the white bar line may or may not blank out the staff lines where they cross.
You may see in some of the examples below that this happens unpredictably.
The details of why this is so and how to control it are covered in Painting objects white. But at the moment we are learning about color, so please just accept this limitation for now. The grob-interface specifies that the color property value is a list, but there is no explanation of what that list should be.
The list it requires is actually a list of values in internal units, but, to avoid having to know what these are, several ways are provided to specify colors. To set the bar lines to white we write:. Note that white is not preceded by an apostrophe — it is not a symbol, but a variable. When evaluated, it provides the list of internal values required to set the color to white. The other colors in the normal list are variables too. To convince yourself this is working you might like to change the color to one of the other variables in the list.
The second way of changing the color is to use the list of X11 color names in the second list in List of colors. However, these are mapped to the actual values by the function xcolor which converts X11 color symbols into the list of internal values like this:. Note that in this case the function xcolor takes a symbol as an argument, so the symbol must be preceded by an apostrophe to keep it from being evaluated as a variable, and the whole function call has to be enclosed in parentheses.
There is another function, one which converts RGB values into internal colors — the rgb-color function. This takes three arguments giving the intensities of the red, green and blue colors. These take values in the range 0 to 1.
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So to set the color to red the value should be rgb-color 1 0 0 and to white it should be rgb-color 1 1 1 :. Finally, there is also a grey scale available as part of the X11 set of colors. These range from black, 'grey0 , to white, 'grey , in steps of 1. Note the contexts associated with each of the layout objects. It is important to get these right, or the commands will not work! Remember, the context is the one in which the appropriate engraver is placed. The default context for engravers can be found by starting from the layout object, going from there to the engraver which produces it, and on the engraver page in the IR it tells you in which context the engraver will normally be found.
Let us begin by looking again at the earlier example see Nesting music expressions which showed how to introduce a new temporary staff, as in an ossia.
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Ossia are normally written without clef and time signature, and are usually printed slightly smaller than the main staff. We already know now how to remove the clef and time signature — we simply set the stencil of each to f , as follows:. These are those properties which cannot sensibly be changed after the context has been created. If fact, an error will be generated if a context is specified in this location. Some layout objects are created as glyphs selected from a typeface font. These include note heads, accidentals, markup, clefs, time signatures, dynamics and lyrics.
Their size is changed by modifying the font-size property, as we shall shortly see. Other layout objects such as slurs and ties — in general, spanner objects — are drawn individually, so there is no font-size associated with them. These objects generally derive their size from the objects to which they are attached, so usually there is no need to change their size manually.
Still other properties such as the length of stems and bar lines, thickness of beams and other lines, and the separation of staff lines all need to be modified in special ways. Returning to the ossia example, let us first change the font-size. We can do this in two ways. We can either change the size of the fonts of each object type, like NoteHead s with commands like.
This is still not quite right. The note heads and flags are smaller, but the stems are too long in proportion and the staff lines are spaced too widely apart. These need to be scaled down in proportion to the font reduction. The next sub-section discusses how this is done. Distances and lengths in LilyPond are generally measured in staff-spaces, the distance between adjacent lines in the staff, or occasionally half staff spaces while most thickness properties are measured in units of an internal property called line-thickness.
For example, by default, the lines of hairpins are given a thickness of 1 unit of line-thickness , while the thickness of a note stem is 1. Note, though, that some thickness properties are different; for example, the thickness of beams is controlled by the value of the beam-thickness property, which is measured in staff-spaces. So how are lengths to be scaled in proportion to the font size?
This can be done with the help of a special function called magstep provided for exactly this purpose. It takes one argument, the change in font size -2 in the example above and returns a scaling factor suitable for reducing other objects in proportion. It is used like this:. Since the length of stems and many other length-related properties are always calculated relative to the value of the staff-space property these are automatically scaled down in length too. Note that this affects only the vertical scale of the ossia — the horizontal scale is determined by the layout of the main music in order to remain synchronized with it, so it is not affected by any of these changes in size.
Of course, if the scale of all the main music were changed in this way then the horizontal spacing would be affected. This is discussed later in the layout section. This, then, completes the creation of an ossia. The sizes and lengths of all other objects may be modified in analogous ways. For small changes in scale, as in the example above, the thickness of the various drawn lines such as bar lines, beams, hairpins, slurs, etc does not usually require global adjustment. If the thickness of any particular layout object needs to be adjusted this can be best achieved by overriding its thickness property.
An example of changing the thickness of slurs was shown above in Properties of layout objects. The thickness of all drawn objects i. There are some objects in musical notation that belong to the staff and there are other objects that should be placed outside the staff. These are called within-staff objects and outside-staff objects respectively. Within-staff objects are those that are located on the staff — note heads, stems, accidentals, etc.
The positions of these are usually fixed by the music itself — they are vertically positioned on specific lines of the staff or are tied to other objects that are so positioned. Collisions of note heads, stems and accidentals in closely set chords are normally avoided automatically. There are commands and overrides which can modify this automatic behavior, as we shall shortly see. Objects belonging outside the staff include things such as rehearsal marks, text and dynamic markings. LilyPond uses the outside-staff-priority property to determine the order in which the objects should be placed, as follows.
First, LilyPond places all the within-staff objects. Then it sorts the outside-staff objects according to their outside-staff-priority. The outside-staff objects are taken one by one, beginning with the object with the lowest outside-staff-priority , and placed so that they do not collide with any objects that have already been placed. That is, if two outside-staff grobs are competing for the same space, the one with the lower outside-staff-priority will be placed closer to the staff.
If two objects have the same outside-staff-priority the one encountered first will be placed closer to the staff. In the following example all the markup texts have the same priority since it is not explicitly set. Staves are also positioned, by default, as closely together as possible subject to a minimum separation.
If notes project a long way towards an adjacent staff they will force the staves further apart only if an overlap of the notation would otherwise occur. These commands are essential when writing polyphonic music to permit interweaving melodic lines to be distinguished. But occasionally it may be necessary to override this automatic behavior. This can be done for whole sections of music or even for an individual note.
The property which controls this behavior is the direction property of each layout object. We first explain what this does, and then introduce a number of ready-made commands which avoid your having to code explicit overrides for the more common modifications. Some layout objects like slurs and ties curve, bend or point either up or down; others like stems and flags also move to right or left when they point up or down.
This is controlled automatically when direction is set. The following example shows in bar 1 the default behavior of stems, with those on high notes pointing down and those on low notes pointing up, followed by four notes with all stems forced down, four notes with all stems forced up, and finally four notes reverted back to the default behavior. The value 0 may also be used in some cases. However, these explicit overrides are not usually used, as there are simpler equivalent predefined commands available. Here is a table of the commonest.
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The meaning of each is stated where it is not obvious. The placement of fingering on single notes can also be controlled by the direction property, but changing direction has no effect on chords. As we shall see, there are special commands which allow the fingering of individual notes of chords to be controlled, with the fingering being placed above, below, to the left or to the right of each note. Here is the previous example using this method:.
By default, the fingering is automatically placed both above and below the notes of a chord, as shown:. The format of this command is:. The property may be set to a list of one to three values. It controls whether fingerings may be placed above if up appears in the list , below if down appears , to the left if left appears, or to the right if right appears. Conversely, if a location is not listed, no fingering is placed there. LilyPond takes these constraints and works out the best placement for the fingering of the notes of the following chords.
Note that left and right are mutually exclusive — fingering may be placed only on one side or the other, not both. Nota bene : To control the placement of the fingering of a single note using this command it is necessary to write it as a single note chord by placing angle brackets round it.
If the fingering seems a little crowded the font-size could be reduced. Outside-staff objects are automatically placed to avoid collisions. There are several ways to override the automatic placement if the positioning is not optimum. Objects with the lower value of the outside-staff-priority property are placed nearer to the staff, and other outside-staff objects are then raised as far as necessary to avoid collisions. The outside-staff-priority is defined in the grob-interface and so is a property of all layout objects. By default it is set to f for all within-staff objects, and to a numerical value appropriate to each outside-staff object when the object is created.
The following table shows the default numerical values for some of the commonest outside-staff objects. Note the unusual names for some of the objects: spanner objects are automatically created to control the vertical positioning of grobs which might start and end at different musical moments, so changing the outside-staff-priority of the underlying grob will have no effect.
For example, changing outside-staff-priority of the Hairpin object will have no effect on the vertical positioning of hairpins — you must change outside-staff-priority of the associated DynamicLineSpanner object instead. This override must be placed at the start of the spanner, which might include several linked hairpins and dynamics. This example also shows how to create Text Spanners — text with extender lines above a section of music.
For more details see Text spanners. If the default values of outside-staff-priority do not give you the placing you want, the priority of any of the objects may be overridden. Suppose we would like the ottava bracket to be placed below the text spanner in the example above. All we need to do is to look up the priority of OttavaBracket in the IR or in the tables above, and reduce it to a value lower than that of a TextSpanner , remembering that OttavaBracket is created in the Staff context:.
Note that some of these objects, in particular bar numbers, metronome marks and rehearsal marks, live by default in the Score context, so be sure to use the correct context when these are being overriden. Slurs by default are classed as within-staff objects, but they often appear above the staff if the notes to which they are attached are high on the staff. This can push outside-staff objects such as articulations too high, as the slur will be placed first. The avoid-slur property of the articulation can be set to 'inside to bring the articulation inside the slur, but the avoid-slur property is effective only if the outside-staff-priority is also set to f.
Alternatively, the outside-staff-priority of the slur can be set to a numerical value to cause it to be placed along with other outside-staff objects according to that value. Changing the outside-staff-priority can also be used to control the vertical placement of individual objects, although the results may not always be desirable. Perhaps this is not so good. What we would really like to do is to position all the annotation at the same distance above the staff. To do this, we clearly will need to space the notes out horizontally to make more room for the text.
This is done using the textLengthOn command. By default, text produced by markup takes up no horizontal space as far as laying out the music is concerned. Markup text will also avoid notes which project above the staff. If this is not desired, the automatic displacement upwards may be turned off by setting the priority to f. They will be positioned vertically relative to the note to which they are attached, and will float below or above all within-staff objects such as phrasing slurs and bar numbers.
This can give quite acceptable results, as this example shows:. However, if the notes and attached dynamics are close together the automatic placement will avoid collisions by displacing later dynamic markings further away, but this may not be the optimum placement, as this rather artificial example shows:. First we must learn how grobs are sized.
All grobs have a reference point defined within them which is used to position them relative to their parent object. This point in the grob is then positioned at a horizontal distance, X-offset , and at a vertical distance, Y-offset , from its parent. The horizontal extent of the object is given by a pair of numbers, X-extent , which say where the left and right edges are relative to the reference point.
The vertical extent is similarly defined by a pair of numbers, Y-extent. These are properties of all grobs which support the grob-interface. By default, outside-staff objects are given a width of zero so that they may overlap in the horizontal direction. So to ensure they do not overlap in the horizontal direction we must override this value of extra-spacing-width to ' 0. This is the command to do this for dynamic text:. Well, it has certainly stopped the dynamic marks being displaced, but two problems remain. The marks should be spaced a little further apart and it would be better if they were all the same distance from the staff.
We can solve the first problem easily. Instead of making the extra-spacing-width zero we could add a little more to it. The units are the space between two staff lines, so moving the left edge half a unit to the left and the right edge half a unit to the right should do it:. This looks better, but maybe we would prefer the dynamic marks to be aligned along the same baseline rather than going up and down with the notes.
The property to do this is staff-padding which is covered in the following section. This may come as a surprise, but LilyPond is not perfect. Some notation elements can overlap. This is unfortunate, but in fact rather rare. Usually the need to move objects is for clarity or aesthetic reasons — they would look better with a little more or a little less space around them. There are three main approaches to resolving overlapping notation. They should be considered in the following order:. This has already been covered in some detail — see Within-staff objects. As an object is being positioned the value of its padding property specifies the gap that must be left between itself and the nearest edge of the object against which it is being positioned.
Note that it is the padding value of the object being placed that is used; the padding value of the object which is already placed is ignored. Gaps specified by padding can be applied to all objects which support the side-position-interface. Instead of padding , the placement of groups of accidentals is controlled by right-padding. This property is to be found in the AccidentalPlacement object which, note, lives in the Staff context. In the typesetting process the note heads are typeset first and then the accidentals, if any, are added to the left of the note heads using the right-padding property to determine the separation from the note heads and between individual accidentals.
So only the right-padding property of the AccidentalPlacement object has any effect on the placement of the accidentals. The staff-padding property is closely related to the padding property: padding controls the minimum amount of space between any object which supports the side-position-interface and the nearest other object generally the note or the staff lines ; staff-padding applies only to those objects which are always set outside the staff — it controls the minimum amount of space that should be inserted between that object and the staff.
Note that staff-padding has no effect on objects which are positioned relative to the note rather than the staff, even though it may be overridden without error for such objects — it is simply ignored. Be aware that the padding properties might not be located in the obvious object, so look in objects that appear to be related.
All padding values are measured in staff spaces. For most objects, this value is set by default to be around 1. It may be overridden if a larger or smaller gap is required. It may be used with all objects which support the self-alignment-interface. In general these are objects that contain text. Numerical values greater than 1 may be specified to move the text even further to the left, or less than -1 to move the text even further to the right. This property is available for all objects which support the item-interface.
It takes two numbers, the first is added to the leftmost extent and the second is added to the rightmost extent. Negative numbers move the edge to the left, positive to the right, so to widen an object the first number must be negative, the second positive. Note that not all objects honor both numbers. For example, the Accidental object only takes notice of the first left edge number. It specifies the vertical position of the object relative to the center line of the staff in half staff-spaces.
It is useful in resolving collisions between layout objects like multi-measure rests, ties and notes in different voices. These are called note columns, and an object called NoteColumn is created to lay out the notes in that column. The force-hshift property is a property of a NoteColumn actually of the note-column-interface. Changing it permits a note column to be moved in units appropriate to a note column, viz.
It is preferable to the extra-offset property for this purpose as there is no need to work out the distance in staff-spaces, and moving the notes into or out of a NoteColumn affects other actions such as merging note heads. This property applies to any layout object supporting the grob-interface.europeschool.com.ua/profiles/xuriqoh/conocer-chicas-de-gran.php
It takes a pair of numbers which specify the extra displacement in the horizontal and vertical directions. Negative numbers move the object to the left or down. The units are staff-spaces. The extra displacement is made after the typesetting of objects is finished, so an object may be repositioned anywhere without affecting anything else. This is most useful for manually adjusting the slope and height of beams, slurs, and tuplets. It takes a pair of numbers giving the position of the left and right ends of the beam, slur, etc.
Units are staff-spaces. Note, though, that slurs and phrasing slurs cannot be repositioned by arbitrarily large amounts. If the positions property has been overridden the slur that is closest to the requested positions is selected from the list. A particular object may not have all of these properties. Get your own cloud service or the full version to view all details. Toggle navigation. Bdld7 Link Twitter E-Mail. External Reports VirusTotal. Risk Assessment. Fingerprint Has the ability to get the wifi MAC address may be used to fingerprint device Has the ability to identify network operator related data Has the ability to read the device ID e.
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